Other blogs その他のブログ

Mari Takenouchi Files 竹野内真理ファイルhttp://takenouchimari.blogspot.jp/
竹野内真理の公開質問Mari Takenouchi's open questions http://koukaishitsumon.blogspot.jp/


What is tritium that could be released from Fukushima? 福島から放出されようとしているトリチウムとは?

I wrote the following note about tritium (radioactive hydrogen with a half-life of 12.3 years) in 2009.
Since the government of Japan has been considering the release of tritium water into the Pacific Ocean, I believe this is one of the gravest environment issues which needs urgent attention.
What is tritium? 

What is tritium? Tritium is radioactive hydrogen, which generates beta rays with a half-life of 12.3 years. In the environment, it often exists as tritium water (HTO), and when taken into the body from drinking water or food, most HTO enters the blood vessels being distributed evenly in almost the entire body within 24 hours. Since it can be also absorbed from the skin, it is understandable that surfers’ groups in Tohoku areas are very concerned. Tritium beta rays can be blocked by a piece of paper, but that means, if HTO is taken into one’s body, the body will keep being exposed by internal radiation.

人の身体は60%は水分であるから、もちろんトリチウムは体内に水の形で滞留するが、その生物学的半減期は10日である。しかも、最近問題になっているのは、水素と同じ性質を持つトリチウムが、生物体内で蛋白質、糖、脂肪などの有機物と結合した、有機結合型トリチウム(OBTOrganically Bound Tritium)である。その場合、人体に滞留する日数はトリチウム水の3倍以上で約30日~45日滞留するとされる。よって体内摂取し、OBTとなると、その分長く被曝の影響を受け、トリチウムの危険性はいっそう増すことになる。
Since 60% of human body is water, of course, tritium stays in the body in the form of water, and its biological half-life is 10 days. However, what has recently become regarded as an issue is organically bound tritium (OBT) with the same properties as hydrogen bound to organic substances such as proteins, sugars, and fats in living organisms. In case of OBT, the biological half-life is more than three times that of HTO, which is about 30 to 45 days. Therefore, when HTO is incorporated into the body and becomes OBT, the risk of tritium increases even more due to the longer exposure time.

As a matter of fact, tritium is a substance regarded as toxic since the 1980s. In 1981, at the Japanese Science and Technology Agency Forensic Medical Seminar, Mr. Koichi Akita from Ibaraki University made a research presentation saying, “In case of human-beings, one in 10 leukocytes breaks at an allowable concentration of tritiated thymidine. “ This means, even if the tritium concentration is at the allowable level, as high as10% of the cells' chromosomes breaks. Mr. Akita stated that the ICRP recommended that the permissible concentration (whole body) level of l0.05μCi / ml should be reviewed, but his recommendation has been ignored.

The allowable concentration of tritium is made with a low standard, which is 400 times lower than that of cobalt. Tritium's beta energy is said to be weak and 400 times safer, but that is not true. When radiation has weaker energy, it may promote cell mutation and cancer. The lax standard of tritium seems to have relation with the political intention with which H-bomb or nuclear fission development workers would not be able to work with a strict standard.

Damage caused by tritium

Pickering nuclear power plant in Ontario, Canada has heavy water reactors that emit a large amount of tritium with annual release of 2500 TBq (similar to the one in Sellafield reprocessing plant). There is a high correlation between the amount of tritium released and the neonatal mortality rate. (Chart to be inserted) 

The surrounding cities have 85% increased birth rate of down syndromes. Increased birth rates with abnormalities in the central nervous system has also been revealed. (Canada Atomic Energy Commission Report)

Correlation between external radiation dose of nuclear workers at the UK / Sellafield reprocessing plant and their children's leukemia rate was also found. In the surrounding area of the Sellafield, childhood leukemia was on the rise, and tritium and plutonium were cited as potential nuclides that could cause exposure. (Gardner Report)

Congenital malformations are occurring at high levels among babies in the downwind and downstream with villages with Rajasthan heavy water reactors in India. (UK 4-channel TV)

Birth rates with abnormal nervous system (such as anencephalopathy) are on the increase in the US surrounding the Hanford military facility. (Sever Report written by a son of a worker at Hanford Military Facility)

  Adult leukemia has been increasing around the Savannah River plant in the US South Carolina. It is also informally reported that the death rate in the perinatal period (from birth to early neonatal period) is high in the Barnwell area of ​​the US. (National Cancer Institute NCI report)

ヒトの末梢血液をin vitro(生体外)で照射してTリンパの急性障害をしらべた結果、トリチウムの細胞致死効果はγ線より高く、また放射線感受性はいずれの血液細胞もマウスよりヒトの方が高いことが明らかにされている。
As a result of examining human peripheral blood in vitro (in vitro) for its acute damage on T-lymph cell, it has been found that tritium has a higher cell lethal effect than γ-rays, and its radio sensitivity is higher in humans than in mice.

In the case of tritium exposure, changes in the normal blood image are small even if there are obvious changes at the stem cell level. Therefore, stem cell check is important for monitoring acute effect.

It is not likely for people to take a large amount of tritium water at a time, but cases of long-term exposure to low-concentration tritium water must be considered.

 実際に、トリチウムをヒトが長期間摂取した被ばく事故例が1960年代にヨーロッパで起きている。トリチウムは夜光剤として夜光時計の文字盤に使用されているが、これを製造する二つの施設で事故が発生している。一つは、トリチウムを7.4年にわたって被ばくした例で280テラベクレル(TBq)のトリチウムと接触し、相当量のトリチウムを体内に取り込んだ事例である。尿中のトリチウム量から被ばく線量は3~6Svと推定されている。症状としては全身倦怠、悪心、その後白血球減少、血小板減少が起こり、汎血球減少症が原因で死亡している( 表3 )。
As a matter of fact, there were accidents in Europe in the 1960s when people ingested tritium for a long duration of time. Tritium was used as a luminous agent on the dial of luminescent clocks, and these accidents have occurred at the two facilities manufacturing the clocks. One is a case where the person was exposed to tritium for 7.4 years, and the person was contacted with 280 terabecquerel (TBq) tritium, and a considerable amount of tritium was taken into the body. From the amount of tritium in urine, the exposure dose is estimated to be 3-6Sv. Symptoms included general malaise, nausea, then developed to leucopenia and thrombocytopenia, finally leading to the death due to pancytopenia (Table 3).

Another accident example followed a similar series of symptoms and the person died due to pancytopenia. The amount of tritium in the organ was 6 to 12 times higher than that in body fluid, which suggested that the victim’s tritium existed in the body as OBT (organic bound tritium).

 発電所および核燃料再処理施設の稼働によりトリチウムも放出されるが、ブルックヘブン・トリチウム毒性プログラムは低濃度トリチウム水に長期間被ばくする場合の健康影響について示唆を与えてくれる( 表4 )。
Tritium is also released by the operation of nuclear power plants and nuclear fuel reprocessing facilities, and the Brookhaven Tritium Toxicity Program provides suggestions for the health effects of prolonged exposure to low-concentration tritium water (Table 4).

The tritium chemical dose coefficient (Sv / Bq) by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), shows that the dose coefficient of HTO is 10,000 times that of tritium gas (HT) effective dose per unit ingested radioactivity for both inhalation and oral ingestion.

The dose coefficient of organically bound tritium (OBT) combined with tissues such as plants is about 2.3 times that of tritium water (HTO). Various processes involved in tritium migration in the environment include diffusion, deposition, rerelease, conversion of HT to HTO, and conversion of HTO to organic tritium (OBT).


Dr. Tetsu Nakamura's Talk Sep 2019 中村哲医師講演メモ(英語仮約付き)


On December 4, Dr. Tetsu Nakamura, who I believe the greatest person in modern Japan, passed away due to gun shots in Afghanistan.   I would like to offer my heartfelt prayer with the following lecture memo taken 3 months ago in Okinawa. (temporary English version follows in the latter half.)

Dr. Nakamura visited Okinawa to give the following lecture on September 7, 2019.

中村哲さんが来られるということで、久しぶりにパソコン持参で気合を入れて、お話を聞かせてもらいました。 前回このようにパソコンを持ちこみ、このように講演メモを取ったのは、2013年東京に、チェルノブイリの医療活動及び研究における第一人者バンダジェフスキー博士http://takenouchimari.blogspot.com/2013/07/721.htmlが来た時以来かもです

As Dr. Nakamura was going to come to Okinawa, for the first time after a long time, I brought my PC to take a detailed lecture memo.  The last time I did this was when Dr. Bandazhevsky, the No. 1 medical doctor and the scientist after Chernobyl accident, came to Tokyo to give a lecture.

The lecture by Dr. Nakamura, who made as many as 1600 wells in Afganistan, was truly amazing. It is such a shame that a man of such a great soul was shot to death this.

I sincerely wish that there would be a world with total restriction on weapons including bombs, shells, and guns in the entire world.  (It is a nice thing that Japan has a gun control at least, but I think this should be applied in every country in the world and also larger weapons should definitely be banned in the world.)



97日 「アフガニスタンに命の水を」中村哲医師
(沖縄キリスト教平和総合研究所、大学コンソーシアム沖縄 県民向け公開講座) 

(紹介)1946年生まれ、九州大学医学部卒業 1984年ハンセン病患者の治療のため、パキスタンのペシャワールへ 91年アフガニスタンに難民のための診療所開設 98年 基地病院PMS(ピースジャパン・メディカル・サービス)をペシャワールに設立、パキスタン山岳地で巡回医療、井戸の数16002002年春からアフガンにおいて緑の大地計画、土木工学を独学、20103月、27キロの用水路を完成。「農業で忙しくして戦争をしている暇はない。大事なことは生きることです。命こそ大切です。」第一回沖縄平和賞受賞















































Dr. Tetsu Nakamura’s Public Lecture in Okinawa

“Water for Life in Afghanistan”

 September 7, 2019

Organized by Okinawa Christian Peace Institute, University Consortium in Okinawa

(About Dr. Tetsu Nakamura) Born in 1946, Graduated from Kyushu University School of Medicine, Went to Peshawar, Pakistan to treat leprosy patients in 1984,  Established a clinic for refugees in Afghanistan in 1991, then a hub hospital PMS (Peace Japan Medical Service) in Peshawar 1998, started providing patrol medical treatment in Pakistan mountainous area, constructed as many as 1600 wells in Afghanistan since spring 2002.  He also launched a green land planning in Afghanistan, through self-taught civil engineering and in March 2010, completed the 27 kilometers irrigation canals. There is no time to have any war being so busy with agriculture. The important thing for people is to live. Life itself is important.Awarded the 1st Okinawan Peace Prize

(Lecture Memo by Mari Takenouchi)

I have visited Okinawa a few times.

I started working for medical activities in Peshawar 35 years ago, and currently I have been doing civil engineering work at rivers.

Why does a medical organization have to work on rivers in Afghanistan?

Why does a hospital director have to use heavy machinery?
I will explain these in today's talk.

Afghanistan is not so familiar to Japan.

It is located on the earth's drying belt, 6000 kilometers west of Japan at the west end of the Nepal Himalayas. 7000 m Kinzutsk Mountains are located in Afghanistan, which has 1.7 of the times of land compared to Japan the 80 % the land is high mountain area. A famous proverb says, You can eat without money, but you can't eat without snow.

Out of 20 million population, nearly 90 percent live on self-sufficient agriculture. Snowy mountains are the source of water. "

However, there has recently been a change in the mountains. There is almost no rain, only about 200 mm per year in Jalalabad, which is equivalent to one or two hours of rain in Okinawa.

As long as there are rain falls, there would be rich greenery in this country. Until only about 40 or 50 years  ago, the self-sufficiency rate was 100 percent in this country.

In a multi-ethnic country, different groups lived in different valleys. Local autonomy was thorough.

We have been conducting our activities in Eastern Afghanistan. The ethnicity and language are the same as Pakistan, but now the civil war has been intensified. 100 % of the people are Islam, which connects not only through individuals’ religion but also between regions.

Through the Friday prayer, people interact each other and share their worries to be resolved immediately. Their culture may sound difficult for the Japanese to understand.

The gap between the rich and poor in this country is enormous. Even in Afghanistan, the rich would fly to NY or London to receive medical treatment, even if they are not seriously ill . However, many people die because of lack of money, even without less than a hundred yen. They often have conflicts with foreigners. Foreigners staying in Afghanistan often run away.

We are not trying to make social reforms locally. I'm just trying to save their life. It is strange to judge their cultural/social difference from us is as delayed or advanced. We try not to look at local customs with bias, which is our policy.

In 1982, I made a five- year plan to eradicate leprosy. At that time, the momentum to eradicate leprosy was increasing. I was surprised when I went to the site where I had to build a treatment center, there were only 16 beds for thousands of patients . There were no medical devices. Therefore, we started fundraising activities for Society of Peshawar, which has been the practice till today.

The time when I was transferred to this position was when the civil war began. In 1979, Soviet invasion of Afghanistan started, followed by 9 years of civil war, resulting in the 2 million deaths. 10 percent of the people died, and 600 million people have fled to neighboring countries such as Pakistan and Iran as refugees.

We made a major shift in the medical policy and expanded the medical care to rural areas in Afghanistan. Treating leprosy alone was not enough for people. People cannot be helped only by a specific disease. All the infections disease were there including tuberculosis, malaria, and amoeba dysentery. There was a little prejudice against leprosy locally and it was not a special disease. General medical care should be provided.

I wanted to create a medical model for rural areas.

To go to Nuristan mountain village, it took one week for one-way from Peshawar. The media coverage in those days was only in urban areas at war zones, and foreign newspaper reporters did not visit such kind of areas.

Soon, the Soviet Army withdrew, and the Soviet Union collapsed. After that, we opened our clinics one after another.

The guerrilla group with support from Europe and the United States entered the capital. Kabul was temporarily abandoned. Suppressing this movement, the Taliban administration emerged again and we were relieved. The period during the Soviet ruling was better, and after the withdrawal of the Soviet Union, crimes such as robbery occurred frequently. The clinic was also attacked.

In the summer of 2000, a drought took place. In fact, the villages disappeared in front of the clinic one after another. I saw physically green villages disappearing. According to the WHO report, there are 4 million people on the hunger line and 1 million people being starved. I think that the drought area is still spreading and I thought had an obligation to make an appeal on this situation.

Intestinal infections, dysentery, typhoid and cholera were prevalent among children. The children died one after another. There was no water. Children are weak. Even if one suffers from dysentery, he dies right away. A young mother came to our clinic walking for days. When she was waiting outside, I suddenly heard a cry from the waiting room, where her child passed away-this kind of scene took place as a daily basis. How powerless can medical care be? Food and water are the best medicines for those who are hungry, no matter how much medicine they take, and those who are thirsty. Clean drinking water and ample food are the important ones.

In August 2000, we began to regenerate withered wells. After that, we dug up 1600 wells so that local people could live in the village.

On September 11, 2001, at that time of US President George W. Bush era, simultaneous terrorist attacks took place in NY. Since the next day, Afghanistan was about to be the target of retaliatory bombing just because of harboring al-Qaeda.  Without being attacked, Afghanistan was weakened so much.  How dare they try to drop bombs in such a country? However, our opinion was a minority. I tried to raise money while going back and forth between Japan and Afganistan.

The air strike began in October.  While the capital city’s bombing was to be approached, I witnessed a strange scene. Kabul is high in altitude and cold in winter. Most wealthy citizens evacuate abroad. I thought that more than 10 % of the people who are poor and remained in Afganistan could nt survive the tough winter. We delivered food aid of 1800 tons which would save the lives of 200,000 people in hunger.

Everyone was gnawing on TV watching the war. Like high school baseball and soccer, people who are called as military experts commented untrue stories such that the US is a pinpoint bombing and does not bother ordinary citizens. In fact, girls and children, elderly people, and disabled people were the first victims. There was a possibility that we could also be attacked with a single high-performance bomb, but we were able to provide food safely. I was able to distribute food not only through me but also through the local staff. Later, the Taliban regime collapsed.

Only demagogues of "Taliban, administration of villainy cruelty was defeated," was reported as hoax news. Women in western clothes enjoying freedom were shown on TV . And Afghan was forgotten from the world.

But what actually happened? Although the poppy field disappeared during the Taliban administration, the same poppy field revived with the US military. Western media called it as freedom, but the freedom was such as begging on the streets or for young women becoming prostitutes for foreign troops.

We wanted to save people's lives first. A method of irrigating groundwater called Karez was very difficult, even though the name of Karez in Japanese was "never drying."  Though we dugged the irrigation again and again, Karez went dry after each time with the groundwater veins becoming less.

In 2003, we made a green earth plan with construction of the Mariwaleed canal. I valued one waterway more than 100 clinics. 15 million people were able to live with a 27 km waterway. It's easy to plan, but hard to make. There were only pickaxes and shovels. Some of you may think how about making money first before making waterway. Afghan rural areas are inaccessible to government. Even engineers and foreign organizations would be too afraid to bring materials to these areas.

It is the local people who maintain an irrigation channel and pass it on to their offspring. A major design change was made because we should aim for an irrigation channel that can be created and maintained by local residents. There are few places in Afghanistan where electricity can be used.

We paid attention to the old technology remaining in Japan and Afghanistan. River velocities in Japan and Afghanistan are rapid. Agricultural land is also narrow with valleys and they are similar in terms of irrigation. I decided to use local technology and materials as much as possible. The oblique river band of the Chikugo River made 220 years ago is similar to riverbank in Afghanistan.

All the Afghanistan farmers are skilled stone craftsmen. River bank were made by the local people. Planting willows will give rise to aquatic plants, fish will live, biodiversity is perfect, and maintenance is perfect. The roots of the willow will enter the gap between the stones and the river bank will not break. Supported by the wisdom of people from the past, I made a water wheel because there was no money to buy oil. Foreigners will disappear someday, so it's better to make what you do locally, in your own way.

Water began to reach deserted villages about three years after the start of construction. The deserted village was covered with greenery and revived. Surprisingly, the reconstruction was done quickly and we were surprised. The temperature of Gamberg Desert can become as high as 51 and 52 degrees Celsius. Many people fell down due to heat strokes, but still, everyone worked without any rest. A daily allowance was also given. Their wishes were only two. Eating rice three times a day and live with one’s family in one’s hometown. People became refugees since they could not have these conditions.

10 years ago in 2009, on August 9 or 10, we tested opening of the canal. Watching the water flow, the residents came to me and said. Dr, now we can live. Now we do nt need anything else anymore. This is the truth.

After that, I brought a pine forest, often planted on the Sea of ​​Japan coast line, to Afghanistan. The pine forest may be considered for tourism, but it is originally intended to protect farmlands. A pine forest planted in Afghanistan, covered with a sandstorm, is now 10 meters tall and green. It is now possible to plant rice in the desert. Vegetables, fruits and firewood can also be have been cultivated. As a result, 150,000  refugees came back to the region.

But this is not the end. The problem of global warming has emerged. The reason of the drought can be nothing other than global warming. We should think of food self-sufficiency rather than any war. As it progresses, the nation would be destroyed by drought. Spring rainfall decreased by 30 % and the temperature rose by 1.8 degrees in 60 years .

In Afghanistan, global warming is accelerating at twice the speed. Rain is localized. When temperatures rise sharply, mountain snow causes record floods. After the flood, there will be no snow in the mountains and the river level will drop. As groundwater and flash floods increase, there is no time for water to penetrate, resulting in drought. Water has become incapable of taking in from large rivers.

Irrigation water that is not affected by such climate change must be constructed. The next challenge is research on water intake facilities, water intake weirs that can withstand flooding and drought, adopting a model from a diagonal weir in Asakura City, Fukuoka Prefecture. What the locals have devised is moderate enough not to take in water more than necessary. We have also reproduced the water ways with natural supply.

In the latter half of 35 years, I have been devoted to drought countermeasures. With overwhelming local support, the number of local collaborators increased. There are more than 1 million collaborators, and more than a few hundred people can be called skilled workers.

I opened training center to expand training since last year. In February last year , the Afghan government adopted our method as a standard, and we are making further progress. Despite major droughts and air strikes, the Eastern Revival Plan is almost achieved. Next, we are trying to expand nationwide from this region. Development from the center may not necessarily consider the region. Conversely, it will expand from the region to the whole country.

Finally, if humans and nature do not live together, our future will be dim. The days of relying on fossil fuels, repeated consumption and production, and infinite exploitation from nature are over. Where are we going? It's time to take a big perspective and think about our future. That is not just a problem in Afghanistan.

(This is the end of the lecture. Next, I wrote down the main answers from the question and answer session.)

(Public health and health condition of local people)

After the water came, the children no longer died so easily. Not only intestinal infections, but also resistance to infectious diseases such as malaria increased. Public health education such as washing hands, etc.is provided, but the best rural infrastructure is just water supply. On the other hand, if students are dispatched from Afghanistan to Japan, they will not come back. They stay in developed countries with MRT, CT and other high-tech medical technologies. I don't think that advanced education is always good.

(What do you think of Japan now?)

Japan has similar geographical conditions, but the agricultural villages are not so healthy. Japan has abundant of water, but the people are not so vigorous. What are the causes? Young people do not live in rural areas. Education make young people yearning for more about the glamor of commerce and city-lives than agriculture, and they seek for jobs abandoning father and mother and seek a job. Even in Kabul, the capital city of Afghanistan, there is no job, so people run away to Europe. The terminal phase of such situation can be seen in Japan. Food self-sufficiency rate is only 30 %. You can buy anything if you pay money. I am shocked that see this trend has been increasing and even seems to be a well-perceived trend in the entire world. Now we bring in foreign workers with money. But what do you do when you run out of money? At the time of the defeat, of war, Japanese people also made vegetables in their own gardens. Where did these vitalities of Japanese people go? Isn't it important for Japan to revive agriculture? There is completely a different situation in Japan compared to the Afghan people who are pleased with mere supply of water. Unless we change the system of education and society, I suspect that the society may become a desperate one.

(Future plans)

In Afghanistan, the project became possible because the region was united. I don't think it can be expanded automatically in other areas. Isn't it one way to expand to the adjacent zone first? Our workers themselves are involved. When the central government comes out, most of the plans will not work. Since the officials themselves work under a shift, they do not have responsibility for the area. We must be there for quite a long time, at least continued way for another 20 years. But I can't live forever. Right now, a big job for me is to make a model area of 60 thousand hectares, and I can also be involved in this.

Global warming issue is hopeless. I am not saying that the government or foreign organizations were lazy, but they have all failed. Our project became the only successful and hopeful one. Its significance does not decrease. I want to keep doing this project at least for the next 20 years. Specifically, I want to make the local economy independent. I would like to continue this for another 20 years while completing this program receiving support from Japan .

(About attitude as a doctor)

The doctor always have to think about what the patient thinks about, what is painful, and what he wants. This is the same in Japan and in other nations. Doctors need to understand patients’  feelings. I myself sometimes see a doctor, but some doctors don't understand the patient's requests at all, and I wonder, "Why is this doctor like this?"

We live in over 600,000 people, but now displaced persons cannot be taken as refugees in Pakistan. Our area is the best place regarding security. People who are fighting with guns could not eat and became mercenaries. As a result, the security became worse. It is not uncommon to see some of our workers who used to hold a gun.

(About awareness of changing the region)

Trust is the first step in implementing any plan. We should put importance on trust before any technology.

Political matters make the situation more complicated.

Women's position should be left to local people.

All we do is to save people’s lives, and then leave the matter to the local people.

Afghan is a society where people cannot shake hands with women. It is a society where you can't take even a picture of a woman.

Some people have doubts that our activities do not show any women at all, but that is not the case.

In most rural areas, the most demanding female’s labor is water gathering. During droughts, you have to travel 5 or 6 kilometers daily. So women are the main collaborators of our activities.

Regarding education, the more education permeates in society, the more young people abandon the elderly and run away. We have to think this much.

(Why do you take risks at the expense of your own life and continue your activities so far)

There are many people who are motivated.

However, it can't be done unless the conditions are met.

In my case, I was able to do it smoothly.

Immediately after the air strike, a lot of funds were collected. About 700 million yen.

What can this be used for? Yes, for managing the water supply! I thought. Before that, I had managed a clinic for 10 years, so I had a trusting relationship with the people in Afghanistan.

In some cases, willingness cannot last, but in my case, I can't escape from my condition anymore.

Now, I'm more into the irrigation than into medical care.

The thoughts and situations of various people made my situation like this.

Pressure is one of the conditions for my continuous efforts.

Until now, only through donations, more than 2 billion yen has been gathered.

If this kind of amount of money is gathered, you would not be able to escape from it unless you're a true villain.

(Thank you for the wonderful lecture!)