At the end of August 2013, Japanese Foreign Minister plans to visit Ukraine for the purpose of obtaining information how to mitigate health hazards after nuclear accident. It is unthinkable is the delegation ignores Dr. Bandazhevsky, who gives the world best research on internal radiation exposure and health impacts.
（However, Japanese medical societies have been ignoring Dr. Bandazhevsky though they are aware of his researches.）
In the end of the seminar, I gave one comment on Tokyo University research team.
I am a freelance journalist who has translated 3 radiation related books. In June 2011, I saw the draft translation on your paper by Mr. Mamoru Kubota and was greatly shocked. I wrote a summary quickly and send them to the Society of Medicine, Society of Heart, Society of Kidney, Society of Liver, etc, but the summary of your paper was totally ignored.
Also, I met Dr. Masaharu Tsubokura, one of the researchers at Tokyo University in person and asked if he read Bandazhevsky paper, and he said, "Yes, as a matter of fact, I feel greatly in trouble. All the foods in Fukushima should be measured, but we don't have enough measuring machines." In Mr. Tsubokura's blog, he said, "From 10Bq/kg, EDG started to show abnormality in Chernobyl." However, after that,
he released a paper at Journal of American Medical Association, which stated that the level in Fukushima was safe even though there are many who went beyond 10Bq/kg!
In another words, experts at Tokyo University knows the truth but have been concealing the truth!
When I stressed on this point, a woman and a man abruptly blocked my speech saying, "We want to ask more questions!"
Their interference was so obvious and the couple apologised saying, "Excuse us during the session..." I thought they were from either from Tokyo University or agent from the goverment of Japan.
When the seminar was over and the room was cleaned, Dr. Bandazhevsky was collecting his things on the desk, so I went up to him and said,
"Dr. Bandazhevsky, my mother is from Fukushima. I really thank you. Thank you very much." While I was saying my words of gratitude, I couldn't hold back my tears.
Dr. Bandazhevsky went to Gomel to establish the Medical University since the Gomel was contaminated and local doctors fleed from the town, he also got exposed and became unwell, and some of his students lost their lives, but continued his study.
Dr. Bandazhevsky studies should be prevailed as much as possible.
Thank you again, Dr. Yuri Bandazhevsky.
As a matter of fact, Cs 137 was detected right after the operation of nuclear power plant, but the promoters kept saying, "it is safe."
Cs emitts beta and gamma rays while decaying into Barium, which is highly toxic. There are many papers which shows the toxicity of Ba, too. Especially, when Ba gets into the cells, they are very risky.
Cs has chemical toxicity along with radioactive toxicity.
Internal exposure is much more dangerous than external exposure.
However, international organizations are calculating the risk of internal radiation based on the external one.
They say, 1 mSv (equivalent to 600~700Bq/kg) is harmless, but there are health impacts under much lower levels.
No laboratories have been conducting the studies of internal radiation, since that would prove the danger.
Let me briefly introduce my personal history.
When I started my study in Gomel in 1990, I was already a University professor.
My expertise was originally "congenital malformation."
I founded the Gomel Medical University and started my study.
Gomel was a contamianted area and doctors fleed from the city.
Therefore, I continued my research while I was a rector at Gomel Medical University.
In those days, I didn't have any prejudice on radiation effects and simply tried to search for the causes of diseases among the residents.
I established a Cs monitoring system for residents.
(In those days, nobody was doing that and some Belarus companies cooperated for that.)
After my research, nobody in Belarus, Russia, or Uklaine has done a similar research.
Though vast amount of money is being used for reconstruction of Chernobyl, there is almost nobody who can talk clearly on health impacts. （The same in Japan!）
The former Soviet Union used various ways to conceal the data of contamination, and residents ate contaminated food without knowing it.
For example, stored beef at Gomel station was contaminated but it was distributed all over the country, and of course the residents didn't know about it.
So I checked the Cs body concentration of kids both in Gomel and uncontaminated areas, and found kids in both areas were contaminated.
I was known as the rector of Gomel Medical University in the local society, but when I started my research, local municipal officers started to be away from me.
One day, I gave my rearch paper to the Minister of Health, then he just put my paper in his desk drawer. I also sent the same to the goverment.
After that, oppression started against me.
There is so called reference level for food, but it is wrong to say that the food is safe if it is under the reference level.
For example, milk cannot be safe at the level of 100Bq/l. The inspector does not say the sample was 98 Bq/l and children drink it without knowing it.
If the child keeps drinking that milk for several days, considerable amount of radioactive materials can be accumulated in his/her body. Can you call this is safe? This is solely a fake declaration of safety.
The most important thing is to make decisions to protect people from now on rather than pointing out the past mistakes done by the politicians.
But after the accident, the real situation of contamination had been concealed. Even the accident itself was concealed and on May Day festival, residents including children were mobilized for parades.
After I had been imprisoned for 8 years (I was actually writing in the prison and the book was published in France), I was ousted from my own country since 2006, and had been staying in France for several years.
Everyone asked for my autography in the book I published in France (the one I wrote about the issue of radiation and my thoughts while I was in the prison), but I was wondering whether he/she understood what I wrote.
In 1964, already 450 pCi/kg (16.7 Bq/kg) Cs was detected in soil, which became 50 pCi/kg (1.9Bq/kg) in 1969.（Marey AN、 et al 1974）
* 1Bq=27pCi, 1pCi=1/27 Bq
However, the book disappeared from major libraries after the accident.
The book said, "contamination of this level has no risk, but if there is any additional radiation contamination, there should be some urgent measures to be implemented."
The book was found by a strudent in a small library in Gomel. After that, I used that data in official places and cited the figures in the Parliament of Belarus. Then, the chairman of the Parliament said that special attentions should be paid to the rector of Gomel Medical University and several months later, I was dismissed.
In Russia, even now, the figures have been concealed.
Several months ago, when I said in an interview by a Russian reporter, "There had already been contamination even before Cheronobyl," that statement was omitted from the article. The chief editor told me that my statement was not credible since there wasn't the book in any library in Russia.
However, the figure is listed on my official site, chernobyltoday.org, where many people can take a look.
What is the people in the authority side scared of ? They kept saying that nuclear power is nothing to be worried about, but if the data before the accident is relased, their statement could be proven to be false.
The same thing can be said about IAEA. They say the contamination started only after the Cheronobyl.
In Belarus, the contaminated area in 1974 coincides with the contaminated area since 1986. This information is very important.
Even some people in our side tell me not to talk about the contamination before Chernobyl, since contamination from Chernobyl could be underestimated.
However, I cannot keep silence on the contamination of these areas before the Chernobyl accident.
These areas had been contaminated for 50 years including the years before the Chernobyl accident.
Birth rate decrease had been observed before the Chernobyl accident, but there had been contamination also. Some scholars insist that the birth rate has been decreased even before the accident concealing the pre-accident contamination.
As for cardiovascular diseases, some institutes in Belarus tell the doctors not to write in the medical record.
But in contaminated areas, ischemic heart disease is high.
Cancer incidence rates are higher in rural areas than urban areas, because people in rural areas eat contaminated food more.
Of course, that doesn't mean that urban areas are safe.
While I was living in Belarus, I was eating normally, and I got sick. I bought a lot of blueberries in Minsk, the capital of Belarus. I thought these blueberries were from some surburb of Minsk.
I had food poisoning symptoms several times after eating blueberries (I thought I had food poisoning), but I later knew that the berries came from contaminated areas.
When I checked my body Cs concentraion in Iwankov District in Ukraine, my figure was higher than the local residents, since I had been eating contaminated food.
Cs concentrates more among children.
Especially, accumulation in thyroid is high, so there is a high possibility that Cs is contributing to thyroid cancer. This issue should needs further studies.
For example, children born after year 2000 did not get initial exposure, but there are many thyroid cancer children.
It is very important to know that radioactive iodine is not the sole contributor to thyroid cancer.
There is a possibility that thyroid cancer will be increased from food contamination in Fukushima.
Cs concentration level result coincided between animal experiments and those of human beings. Internal organ's concentration was much higher compared with the average per kg per body.
In a textbook by former Soviet Union, Cs is supposed to accumulate in skeletal muscle, without any further explanation. That is true since the weight of skeletal muscle is much, but as for the concentration, internal organs such as heart is higher.
However, there was nobody who checked the Cs concentration in internal organs.
Injection of radioactive material into a rat.
Measuring the body concentration
Preparing tissue samples of internal organs
The tissue is separated for paraphine block
The scene shows the mortuary
Organs were extracted after dissection
Heart and other organs are placed on the plate.
Sampling of the heart is prepared.
Measuring how much radioactive materials are accumulated in the heart
(Measureing was done in a lead container)
Staff discussing the result.
In case of heart with Cs 45Bq/kg concentration
Mitochondoria (producer of cell energy) structure was altered and multiple number of mitochondorias were joined.
Enzymes alkaline phosphatase and creatine phophokinase (CPK) were measured in heart. In case of animals with high Cs concentration, these enzymes were half of normal figures. These enzymes are necessary for activation of mitochondoria, so energy supply will be suppressed for cells. The same can be said in organs other than heart.
One of my school's female student who was a bit chubby was trying to do a diet by exercising. Then she suddenly died due to heart failure. However, nobody was talking about the cause of her death in connection with radiation.
This is the measurement of heart ECG. My wife, Garina Bandazhevskaya made this table. She is a pediatrician specialized in heart diseases and child ECG pattern.
At first we were examining ECG of children with 30Bq/kg Cs concentration.
As a control group, we chose some uncontaminated area, and also we picked even more contaminated area such as Petka, worse than Gomel.
At 10 Bq/kg, ECG shows a big difference.
This is not only true for the heart.
At 10 Bq/kg, there are many of those who have some genetic defects, which were induced by some other factors besides Cs.
We assumed that even small amount of Cs could induce genetic defects.
Lead could be another factor. Lead was massively poured into the reactor, which was scattered in large volume in the surrounding of Chernobyl.
When we checked the lead concentration in children's blood in various areas, they showed high figures.
Lead can block the energy production generated by ions passing cell membranes.
I assumed that the high rate of ECG abnormality among Gomel children could be partially attributed to lead.
Currently in Ukraine, we have been conducting studies to search for other chemical substances which could be attributable for residents' ill health. It is quite interesting to know relationship with substances other than lead.
However, radiation effects are observed most among all the disease indusing factors in contaminated areas.
This is the photo of heart tissue of 43 year old man who died suddenly with 45.5 Bq/kg Cs concentration of heart. Cardiac muschle dissolution and serious edema are observed. Cs cause diffuse lesion.
This kind of diffuse lesion look quite different from ischaemic myocardiac disease.
For example, when I dissect a person who died suddenly, that person hasn't got myocardiac infarction but had some diffuse lesion. At first I could not understand what was going on when I looked at the diffuse lesion.
Therefore, I established the same environment with experimental animals and observed their internal tissue and found the diffuse lesion, so I found out the cause.
In this way, I came to be aware that the myocardiac disease was caused by internal radiation effect.
However, the nuclear promotors keep their silence.
This effect can be seen in other organs, too.
When energy level is in deficiency, arctation occurs. Excess arctation occurs in cardiac muscle and other tissues. Due to energy deficiency, calcium gets also deficient, whicb causes excess arctation.
Likewise, when blood vessels get harmed, kindney gets affected.
In kidney, blood stoppes circulating glomeruli, resulting in necrosis. I named this glomerulus necrosis as, "melting ice syndrome, " which causea chronic kidney failure in a hidden manner.
Increase of radioactive material causes increase of bodily urea due to failed nitrogen metablism.
If this trend continues for a certain period of time, it will cause chronic kidney failure.
In Gomel, many residents have this chronic kidney failure.
In Belarus, there are dialysis treatment centers, but there are too many patients to treat, and some have died because they couldn't get one.
Lack of inflammatory reaction means suppression of immune system.
Various people write thesis regarding the suppression of immune system caused by radiation.
Lots of radioactive material get accumulated in spleen, too.
Let me show you the photo of liver with radiatioactive material accumulation. You can see the alteration of fat and protein and necrosis of liver cells.
In contaminated areas, there are lots of people who suffer from fatty liver. As a result, metabolism in the entire body gets decreased.
There are many patients who have medium level liver failures.
In 1990, I came to Gomel and had an ordinary diet.
After 3 months, my Cs body concentration became 60 Bq/kg.
But in those days, I was 34 years old and young, and I didn't pay much attention to that.
I tended to feel a bit tired, but I had a lot of work to do as the rector of the university.
One day, in order to check the functionality of our university laboratory, I examined my own blood and then I was told that my liver index showed bad figures.
Two weeks after that, I took several weeks off to my mother's house.
After I came back to Gomel, my Cs body concentration was decreased and my blood index became back to normal.
I believe scholars should study staying in the contaminated area and live like other residents do. I think it is not allowable for researchers to stay at a remote area to conduct a study.
You can have more subjective views and analysis if you stay in the contaminated area and go through the same experiences like other residents do.
After Chernobyl, lots of Japanese scholars came and obtained a lot of information, but where is it now?
Tomorrow, I am going to meet some professor from Tokyo University.
But now is the time to act rather than studying.
Impacts on female reproduction system
At first we conducted internal Cs monitoring on children and then moved to adults.
We checked the internal Cs among young people at reproductive age and also checked the hormons in blood, estrogen and progesteron.
In the female with over 40Bq/kg, increase in the level of progesterone and decrease in the level of estradiol were recorded in the follicle phase, and decrease of progesteron and increase of estradiol were recorded.
With these pattern of hormon secretion, implantation of fertilized ovum, development of fetus and baby will become difficult.
The same can be said for female in puberty age in contaminated areas.
This data became the last release of my study as the rector of and in the newspaper on the same day, my arrest was reported.
After that, President Lukachenko announced that it would be safe to keep living in the contaminated area.
Cs concentration in fetus with congenital malformation is quite high. We checked the cortisol level in blood in accordance with the Cs concentration in placenta. We found that the difference of cortisol concentration between mother and the fetus was greater when Cs concentration was high. That is, mothers had higher cortisol than new borns. This will affect the stress resistance of newborns.
Cortisol also plays an important role in the development of lung tissues.
It will affect the development of alveolus, which could result in atelectasis. Also such babies cannot resisit foreign substances included in the air, and become more liable to get infectious diseases, which could threat the lives of newborns.
In Belarus, the congenital malformation became 1.5 times higher bewteen 2000 and 2008.
The rate is higher in Gomel, but there are many congenital malformation in other states.
Men accumulate Cs more than women.
However, in case of pregnant women, they absorb a lot of radioactive cesium and massive amount of Cs could be accumulated in their placenta. Placenta is like a magnet for radioactive materials.
Placenta blocks harmful material to intrude into fetus, but Cs can pass through it to fetus, and this was proven in animal experiments.
Cs can induce genetic damages on children through multiple causes.
On top of genetic diathesis, when inducing factor intrudes into the body, such genetic damage developes.
The most serious one occurs on central nerve system, especially on the genetic diathesis of brain.
There are many campaigns for studies and fund-raising for children with genetic heart defects.
However, there is nobody who talks about prevention, where pregnant women tries not to take Cs into their bodies.
In Ukranian International Project, lots of efforts are made to protect the health of newborns.
We gave oats with various concentration of Cs 137 to rats for 28 days.
As the result, there were differences on the secretes from cerebral hemispheres.Gricin was decreased and glutamic acid was increased.
I will show a video of rats with these brain problems and let's see their behavioral problems of them.
Rats fed with Cs had higher concentration of urea in their blood.
Child cataract is increased in Gomel, Petka district. (Bandazhevsky et al, 1997,1998）
It is quite abnormal for children to get cataract.
35% of children got cataract when their Cs level goes beyond 50Bq/kg.
For children who is more than 30 Bq/kg has consistant impacts on important organs. I call it SLIR.
After the accident, medical society only paid attention on individual organs no the entire system, which was wrong.
In the beginning, there was no monitoring system, so I didn't come to think of this kind of syndrome.
There was also no evaluation system for the entire body system.
In case of children and fetus, they are vulnerable to outside factors, and their symptoms tend to be very serious.
When I took the office of rector at the Gomel Medical University, I began recruiting doctors.
While I was giving lectures on immunology, I tried to find promising students to remain in our laboratories.
Then I established a study group. In our group, there was a female student who was 22 years old. She was very smart and capable.
She was one of the most promising students.
After a while, her friend told me that she had a very big cancer in her liver. It was either in 1990 or 1991. Primary hepatic cancer is a very rare disease. But the cases of primary hepatic cancer.
While we were conducting our research, she didn't complain particular pain and did her work.
I was always worried about her.
One day, she didn't come to the office. Her photo still remains in our website.
Her death was one of the most shocking events for me in the early days.
Impacts of radiation and chemical substances on reproductive organs.
We witnessed the loss of reproductivity through animal experiments.
We evaluated the safety of the oats cultivated in the contaminated area in 2011.
50Bq/kg cesium 137
17.2 Bq/kg strontium 90
（The ratio of Sr９０ is amazingly high!）
You can see congenital malformation of fetus. This fetus has anastomosis of skeletons.
We also observed fetuses in mother's womb.
This fetus has a brain deviated. This one has cheiloschisis, and this one has cleft palate.
This baby rat has abnormality on his skull.
This baby rat has stress reaction. (Strangely, only female baby rats and no stress reaction was observed among male rats.)
This baby rat is 45 days old and its erythrocytes and hemoglobine were decreased.
Other abnormalities were observed in other blood indexes.
What was typical among these rats was the increased urea.
There were damages on kidney too.
The government is trying to return people to the area where I conducted the oats study.
Now you can guess how I have been hated by authorities.
Pursuing truth accompanies difficulities.
Now I am not alone, but Ukraine Science Academy is supporting us and we have founded Center for Analysis on the Environment and Health.
In April 2008, I talked about the need to study objectively in a contaminated area at European Parliament. After a long time, the project was admitted and EU provided some fund. In Iwankov district in Ukraine, where the contamination is serious, health survey was also started.
There, contamination of the soil and inclusion of chemical substances are measured. Also, the soil and food contamination and human body contamination are measured in the laboratory.
We are also monitoring all the 7500 children living in the area including the monitoring of organs though biochemical inspection.
For children, we gave iodine suppliment for the duration of 10 months and conducted pregnant women and fetus inspection.
We also provided suppliment of iodine, vitamin, and mineral to pregnant women.
We also established the Mother/child center in the central hospital and conduct fetus and newborns' health check.
We also have a counseling center for giving advice on how to obtain uncontaminated foods.
These kinds of activities should have been done 20 years ago, and I wrote the same in my book 20 years ago.
I am involved in this EU international project as an expert. I want our project to be used for Fukushima. It is very important for Japanese citizens and scholars to join this project.
We have to consier not only radioactive materials emitted from the accident, but also chemical substances, too.
When we talk about prevention, we need to protect ourselves from all the toxic materials.